BBI of Chicago
Negotiation: Broad conceptual framework and bilateral communication process
By: Larissa Molinari Freitas.
Negotiation is a topic that is, in everyone's daily lives, everyone will probably need to experience the act of negotiation. Currently, the world is going through a time when many transformations have altered the way companies relate to people, suppliers, customers, and everyone else involved (the stakeholders in operations). Thus, the negotiation skill has never been so demanded.
In other words, negotiation is a methodology in which two or more parties, with shared and contrasting advantages, come together to confirm and discuss explicit proposals to reach an agreement. This explanation is true because negotiation is effectively a process. After all, it is established in the past, present, and future. Moreover, it requires application, command, and organization.
A negotiation is commonly formed from a conjuncture or adversity that occurred in the past, aiming at a resolution for the present or future. The beginning of a negotiation process is given by the need of one of the parties to clarify a certain problem or resolve a conflict. As a result, for there to be a negotiation process, there must be two or more parties involved and interested in negotiating to conclude. When a conclusion is implicitly mentioned, it can be expressed that the parties involved in the process need to make some acquiescence in their predilections or points of view for the agreement to be sustained.
However, it cannot be guaranteed whether the parties closed a good agreement, since it is very subjective, since interests are contrasting and, often, negotiation takes place, as already exposed, to correct setbacks or existing conflicts, which if not resolved, will bring even more difficulties or losses to the parties involved. In this situation, some significant factors need to be taken into account in a negotiation process, which is as mentioned by BAZERMAN (2008): usefulness in negotiating, in which the parties involved need to be interested in the deal, on the contrary, it will never be effective, and knowing how to make concessions, as the parties are unlikely to reach an agreement without often giving in to personal or sentimental standards since a good that has sentimental value is worth much more to those who are breaking up than to those who are taking possession of it. Because in the case of the seller, there is a sentimental issue and, regularly, for precision, he is compelled to get rid of that good. Now, for the buyer, it's a normal negotiation process where the real value is placed without the sentiment factor introduced.
The concession cited is a significant part of the negotiation process, so it has to be measured so that, when it is granted, the maximum can be obtained. Many negotiators hold back or withdraw at the beginning of negotiations, and make few consents at this stage, but they do not do so out of weakness or because they are bold or inflexible, they are just using a strategy of studying the opponent, examining their movements and positions. After knowing the opponents' strengths and weaknesses, the phase of due concessions begins. It is interesting to think that many negotiators give in, very little, during the whole deal, but in moments of embarrassment and disagreement they tend to give in a lot. The negotiator needs to be aware that many concessions made cost relatively little, so he should make them and let the other negotiating party also be happy with the process.
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BAZERMAN, M., NEALE, M. Negociando Racionalmente. 2nd ed. BRA. Atlas, 2008.
COHEN, H., Você pode negociar qualquer coisa. 17th ed. Rio de Janeiro: Record, 2007.
FISHER, R., URY, W., PATTON, B., Como chegar ao sim: negociação de acordos sem concessões. 2nd edition revised and amplified. Rio de Janeiro: Imago Editora, 2005.
MARTINELLI, D.P., Negociação empresarial: enfoque sistêmico e visão estratégica. São Paulo: Manole, 2002.